Thursday, March 29, 2012

Indian History - NCERT Book Chapters

Part of Indian History - Knol Book

6th Class

Earliest Cities

Janapadas and Mahajanapadas

Buddhism and Jainism


Prashasti of Samudra Gupta

Stupas, Temples and Books

7th Class

7th Century Kingdoms

Delhi Sultans


Bhakti Movement - Nayanars and Alwars

Regional Culture Development - Malayalam Language and Kathak Dance

1707 to 1800

8th Class

Weavers and Cotton Mills in India

Education in English in India

Visual Arts - Raja Ravivarma and Tagore

Formation of Congress and Democratic Movement for More Powers and Freedom

India - Immediately After Independence

12th Class

Early States and Economies BCE 600 to 600 CE

Al Beruni, Ibn Batuta - Customs of Indians 10th to 17th centuries

Bhakti - sufi traditions

Akbarnama and Badshah Nama

Original knol - 3478

Wednesday, March 14, 2012

Early Harappans and Indus Sarasvati Civilization - Book Information and Review

Early Harappans and Indus Sarasvati Civilization, 2 Vols.
by Sharma, D P and Madhuri Sharma (ed)
2006, Set US$ 105.88 or Rs. 4500

The Harappan Civilization is the gift of two rivers - the Indus and Sarasvati whose tributaries had played a dominant and decisive role in the origin of this  civilization. As of now around 2658 Harappan and its associated sites have been reported, of which 1058 sites are located in the dried-up bank of the Sarasvati river which flowed from the Himalayas to Adi Badri towards Desalpur in Gujarat. . The Sarasvati was a mighty river between ca. 5000 and 1800 B.C. Around ca. 1800 B.C., due to neo-tectonic movements in the Himalayas, the river started drying up. .


This set of books is a collection of forty research papers contributed by the noted scholars and historians from India and abroad.
Volume-I contains nineteen papers which includes introduction, the origin of Harappan, and Early Harappan village chalcolithic cultures.
 Volume-II covers on Indus Sarasvati Civilization and includes twenty-one papers on the Mature Indus Sarasvati Civilization which contain controversial and clashing views.
The nomenclature, either of Harappan, Indus or Indus Sarasvati civilization means the same. This has been confirmed on the basis of the available archaeological evidences.

Bound in two volumes, the papers with notes, references and bibliography are well illustrated and grouped in three parts, i.e., Introduction; Early Harappans; and Indus-Sarasvati Controversies.

Introduction: (1) Harappan Civilization/ D P Sharma; (2) South Asian Archaeology: Some Issues/ D P Agrawal;
Part-II: Early Harappans: (3) New Discoveries Point to a Southern Origin: Gulf of Cambay/ David Frawley & Navratna Rajaram; (4) World’s Oldest Lost Civilization Found in South Asia/ Raj Chengapa; (5) Early Neolithic Settlement in Bannu, Pakistan/ J R Knox, Farid Khan & K D Thomas; (6) Sheri Khan Tarakai: Excavation in Bannu District, N W F P/ J R Knox, Farid Khan & K D Thomas; (7) Origin of the Harappan Civilization/ D P Sharma; (8) Origin of Harappan Civilization and Mehrgarh Excavations/ Jean Francois Jarrige; (9) Earliest Agriculture in the Kachi Plain (Mehrgarh)/ Lorenzo Costantini; (10) Early Harappan Remains, Pottery and Artifacts at Nausharo/ Anaick Samzun; (11) Early Harappan Ceramics/ D P Sharma; (12) Petrographic Analysis of Early Harappan Ceramics of South Asia (ca. 3500-2700 B.C.)/ Graham M Chandler; (13) Padri: The Early Harappan Site in Gujarat/ Vasant Shinde; (14) Early Harappans in Gujarat/ Abhijit Majumdar; (15) Ochre Coloured Ceramics and the Early and Mature Harappans/ R C Gaur; (16) 5th-4th Millennium Dating Rigveda Culture/ Shivaji Singh; (17) Indo-European Homeland: An Indian Perspective/ D N Tripathi; (18) Dhalewan Early-Mature Harappan Excavated Site in Punjab (India)/ Madhubala & Vishnu Kant; (19) Transformation of the Harappan Civilization/ G L Possehl;
Volume 2:
Part-III: Indus-Sarasvati Controversies: (20) Indus and Sarasvati in History, Geology and Archaeology/ S P Gupta; (21) Archaeology of Sarasvati/ B B Lal; (22) Origins of the Indus-Sarasvati Civilization/ S P Gupta; (23) Harappans and Rigveda/ R S Bisht; (24) Harappan: Vedic Civilization/ Suman Pandya; (25) The Harappans, Sarasvati and Rigveda/ T P Verma; (26) Rigvedic and Harappan Connections/ Shivaji Singh; (27) The Mahabharat for Harappan Civilization/ S P Gupta; (28) Sarasvati and Harappan Archaeology/ Vedagya Arya; (29) Vedic Harappans/ N S Rajaram; (30) Archaeology Cannot ‘Prove’ the Vedas/ Nayanjot Lahiri & Upender Singh; (31) Rational Approach to the Rigveda and Indus Civilization/ Malati J Shende; (32) Indus Seals and Atharvaveda/ P V Pathak; (33) Notes on Flora and Fauna in the Rigveda/ B B Lal; (34) Technology Transfer in 4th Millennium B.C. in Bannu Basin/ K D Thomas, J R Knox and Farid Khan; (35) Third Millennium Painted Grey Wares in Pakistan and Iran/ Rita P Wright; (36) Sarasvati: River and Civilization/ N S Rajaram; (37) Harappan Language and Script/ N S Rajaram; (38) Vedic Harappans and the Horse Symbolism/ N S Rajaram and J Jha; (39) Harappan Occupation at Nausharo/ Jean-Francois Jarrige; (40) Collapse of the Sarasvata Sabhyata: An Elegy in Mahabharata/ Arun Kumar.
Eastern Book Corporation
124, Chanderlok Enclave
Pitampura, Delhi 110034
E-mail :
Original Knol - 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2753

Ancient Indian History - Indus Valley Civilization

Ancient history has to be developed from the two historical accounts popular in India Ramayan and Mahabharat and the ancient philosophical and religious literature of India, Vedas, Puranas and the associated works. Then there are many classic works written by Kalidasa and others.
From an archaeological point of view, Harappa in Punjab (now in Pakistan) was noticed in 1826. General Cunningham, a British officer is given the credit for preliminary excavations at Harappa.
Further investigations were carried out by two officers of Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Mr. R.D. Bannerjee and Mr. R.B. Daya Ram Sahni. They carried out excavations in the Larkana district of Sind and Montgomery district of Punjab. Mr. Sahni in his excavactions discovered the ruins of Harappa in 1921. Mr. Bannerjee found and dug out the ruins of Mohen-jo-daro in 1922. As the sites of excavations were in the valley of Indus river and its tributaries, historians name it 'the Indus Valley Civilization'. It is called as Harappan civilization or culture as the first site at which evidence was found was Harappa.
More Sites
Some more sites with cultural artifacts bearing similarity to those of Harappa and Mohenjodaro were found at Chanhu Daro in Sind, Lothal near Ahmedabad in Gujarat, Kali Banga, in Rajasthan, Alamgir near Hastinapur in U.P., and Ropar in the Punjab.
Perod of Civilzation
John Marshall estimated that the Indus Valley Civilization belonged to the period 3250 B.C. to 2750 B.C.
The City Construction
Harappa and Mohenjodaro are considered as cities. The ruins indicated that the main streets and roads were set in a line. They sometimes were straight for a mile and the width varied from 4 metres to 10 metres. Many of these roads were paved with fire burnt bricks. The main streets intersected at right angles dividing the city into squares.
The Drainage System
There were street drains and houses had pits in which heavier parts would settle down and sewerage water would flow into steet drains. This elaborate drainage system showed that the Indus valley people were aware of the principles of health and sanitation.
Palatial houses as well as one or two room houses were located in the ruins. Great bathing places, granaries and assembly halls were located.
Number of statues, figurines of men and women in terracotta, stone and metal were found in the ruins. Number of seals were found.
Original Knol - 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2033

Ancient Indian History

Ancient India   By Shree Sanket

Ancient Indian History - Indus Valley Civilization   By Narayana Rao 

Original Knol - 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 3471

Sunday, March 11, 2012

Hindus Won Many Battles with Muslim Armies - Success of War Strategy and Tactics - YouTube Video

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He spoke about how Indian kings resisted invasions from Arabia from 712 ad to 1206 AD and the reasons for India still remaining hindu.

From the Comment by the Video Uploader on YouTube

The only equilant for the suffering india faced from 712 AD to 1857 AD was the holocaust. Hitler killed jews in millions for 10 years. Jews haven't forgotten it, world hasn't forgotten it. But Indians  have conveniently forgotten the 90 million slaughtered hindus in bharathvarsha from 712 ad to 1857 AD. .It has been hidden in the pages of history. They say that winners write history books. The same thing happened in India. The persons who control India wrote history books and threw such an event into the dust bins of history. How did India survive this? The cooperation among Hindus at village level stood as a rock against Muslim and Christian Invasion.It helped the Hindu society to survive the threats of religious conversions from Hindu religion to Islam and Christianity.

Original post on Knol