Garwal Rifles Day
Andhra Pradesh Formation Day
Haryana Formation Day
Karnataka Formation Day
Kerala Formation Day
Madhya Pradesh Formation Day
Punjab Formation Day
Rajastan Formation Day
Tamil Nadu Formation Day
India came directly under the adminstration of Queen of Britain. East India Company was displaced.
Ghadar paper first issue printed from USA. It was a paper of Indian Revolutionaries. Edited by Lala Hardayal.
Kerala University Established
Fist Indigenous steam engine from Chittaranjan Locomotives railed out.
States Reorganization on linguistic basis
The Mughal authority was set at naught and chaos and confusion reigned supreme in the territories around Dhamoni due to the raids by Chhatrasal. Khaliq, the Faujdar of Dhamoni sent urgent messengers to the Emperor. The Emperor sent Ruhullah Khan (23rd March, 1673) to take charge of Dhamoni with express orders to suppress Chhatrasal and his brothers. The chiefs of various neighbouring states including Datia, Orchha, Chanderi etc. were ordered to render every assistance to the new Faujdar against Chhatrasal.
Ruhullah Khan advanced with a large army towards Garhakota(28 miles east of Sagar) to attack Chhatrasal. The battle which began in the afternoon continued till night. The Bundelas repelled the Mughal forces inflicting heavy losses and Ruhullah Khan was forced to beat a retreat.
The news of the failure of the Mughal expedition reached the Emperor. He fined Ruhullah Khan and ordered him to suppress the Bundelas with the help of a contingent of Turks that was sent. Ruhullah Khan again advanced with a strong army and encountered the Bundelas at Basia(10 miles west of Sagar). In the engagement that followed the Bundelas made a dash upon the Mughal artillery. At that time gunpowder was being distributed among the gunners, which was set alight by the Bundelas and the resulting explosions created panic in the Mughal army. Taking advantage, the Bundelas swooped upon the enemy forces and routed them completely.
In 1178 Muhammed Ghori, marched towards Gujarat capital of Anhilwara (modern Patan).
Gujarat was ruled by the young Indian ruler Bhimdev Solanki II (ruled 1178–1241). The army was commanded by his mother Naikidevi. Muhammad's army had suffered greatly during the march across the desert, and Naikidevi inflicted a major defeat on him at the village of Kayadara (near to Mount Abu, about forty miles to the north-east of Anhilwara). The invading army suffered heavy casualties during the battle, and also in the retreat back across the desert to Multan.
An army led by Qutb al-din Aibak, Ghori's deputy invaded again in c.1195–97. Bhimdev defeated Aibak again and adorned himself as "Abhinav Siddharaj".
The Battle of Rajasthan is a battle (or series of battles) where the Gurjar Hindu alliance defeated the Arab invaders in 738 CE The final battle took place somewhere on the borders of modern Sindh-Rajasthan. Following their defeat the remnants of the Arab army fled to the other bank of the River Indus.The main Indian kings who contributed to the victory over the Arabs were the north Indian Gurjar Emperor Nagabhata I of the Pratihara Dynasty and the south Indian Gurjar Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty in the 8th century.
The most powerful kingdoms of North India in the 8th century were the Gurjara Pratihara dynasty and the Pala dynasty.
In the early 8th Century the Kingdom of Sindh under Brahmin King Dahir of the Rai dynasty was convulsed by internal strife——taking advantage of the conditions the Arabs assaulted it and occupied it under Muhammad ibn Qasim, the nephew of Al-Hajjaj (governor of Iraq and Khurasan). Qasim and his successors attempted to expand from Sindh into Punjab and other regions but were badly defeated by Lalitaditya of Kashmir and Yasovarman of Kannauj.
Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri, the successor of Muhammad ibn Qasim, in Sindh led a large army into the region in early 730 CE. Dividing this force into two he plundered several cities in southern Rajasthan, western Malwa, and Gujarat. The southern army moving south into Gujarat was defeated at Navsari by Avanijanashraya Pulakesi who was sent by the South Indian Gurjar Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya Empire. The army that went east, reached Avanti whose ruler Gurjara Pratihara Nagabhata I utterly defeated the invaders and they fled to save their life.
The Battle of Rajasthan
Gauging at the seriousness of the situation as well as the power of the arab forces, pratihara king, Nagabhata made pact with Jaysimha Varman of the Rashtrakuta Empire. Jaysimha in turn sent his son Avanijanashraya Pulakesi to support Nagabhata. The two Dynasties of India supplemented the already fighting Hindu Gurjar Mewar Kingdom, under Bappa Rawal, at the border of Rajasthan.
The battle was fought between 5,000-6,000 Gurjar Infantry and cavalry facing more than 30,000 Arabs. The Gurjar fought bravely and managed to kill the Arab leader Emir Junaid during the war. This enhanced the morale of the Gurjar hindu forces while the Arabs disorganized and demoralized due to their leaders death retreated and were frequently attacked by local forces until they reached the indus river taking great casualties.
Junayd's successor Tamim ibn Zaid al-Utbi organized a fresh campaigns against Rajasthan but failed to hold any territories there. He would be further pushed across River Indus by the combined forces of the King of Kannauj, Nagabhata thus limiting the Arabs to the territory of Sindh across River Indus.
The Arabs crossed over to the other side of the River Indus, abandoning all their lands to the victorious Indian kings. The local chieftains took advantage of these conditions to re-establish their independence. Subsequently the Arabs constructed the city of Mansurah on the other side of the wide and deep Indus, which was safe from attack. This became their new capital in Sindh.
Chittor was besieged in 1303 AD by the army of Alauddin Khilji, sultan of Delhi, who is said to have coveted Padmini, Rani of Chittor, a legendary beauty of her day. The famous Jauhar followed, wherein Rani Padmini, led the ladies of the fort into death by self-immolation. The next morning, the menfolk of Chittor rode out to face certain death on the field of honour.
After Chittor was lost, an extremely distant kinsman of Rawal Ratan Singh (Rana of Mewar), by name 'Laksha' or Lakshman Singh, proclaimed himself Rana-in-exile. Laksha was descended in direct patrilineage from Bappa Rawal (founder of Mewar Dynasty), and hence belonged to the Gehlot clan. But he was an eighth cousin twice removed of Rawal Ratan Singh. Laksha hailed from the village of Sisoda near the town of Nathdwara. Laksha was the father of nine sons, of whom the eldest was Ari. Hammir was the only child of Ari.
Both Laksha and Ari died in various skirmishes when Hammir was yet an infant; resultantly, Hammir grew up under the tutelage of his uncle Ajay, the second son of Laksha.
The Khiljis had assigned their newly conquered territories to the administration of Maldeo, ruler of the nearby state of Jalore, who had allied with them during the recent war. In a bid to reconcile and co-opt the natives of the land to his rule, Maldeo arranged for the marriage of his widowed daughter Songari with Hammir. Rana Hammir Singh re-established the state of Mewar in 1326 by engineering a coup d'état against his father-in-law. The dynasty thus founded by Hammir, who was descended in direct patrilineage from Bappa Rawal, came to be known as Sisodia after Sisoda, the mountain village whence Hammir hailed.
Bappa Rawal (AD. 713-810), was the founder of the Mewar Dynasty (r. 734-753).
Bappa Rawal was one of the most powerful and famous rulers of the Mewar Dynasty. He is a surviving member of the Guhilot clan. But he established the Mewar Dynasty, naming it for the kingdom he had just taken. He went on to become a celebrated hero on battlefields near and far. It is said that Bappa was blessed by Harit Rishi, a sage of the Mewar region, with kingship.
Bappa Rawal is said to have spent his childhood near a place called Nagda.
Bappa Rawal played an important role in the Battle of Rajasthan, a series of wars fought in the 8th century AD between the regional rulers of North-Western India and the Arabs of Sindh, in which the regional Indian rulers inflicted a resounding defeat on the invading Arabs.
In the 8th century Arab Muslims started attacking India within a few decades of the birth of Islam, which was basically an extension of invasion of Persia. In order to ward off Muslim invasions across the western and northern borders of Rajputana, Bappa united the smaller states of Ajmer and Jaisalmer to stop the attacks. Bappa Rawal fought and defeated the Arabs in the country and turned the tide for a while. Bin Qasim was able to defeat Dahir in Sindh but was stopped by Bappa Rawal.
Bappa defeated and pursued Bin Qasim through Saurashtra and back to the western banks of the Sindhu (i.e. current day Baluchistan). He then marched on to Ghazni and defeated the local ruler Salim and after nominating a representative returned to Chittor. Subsequently, Bappa Rawal and his armies invaded various kingdoms including Kandahar, Khorasan, Turan, Ispahan, Iran and made them vassals of his kingdom. Thus he not only defended India's frontiers but for a brief period was able to expand them.
Bappa Rawal was also known to be a just ruler. After having ruled his kingdom for almost 20 years he abdicated the throne in favour of his son, he became a devout Siva 'upasak' (worshipper of Shiva) and became a 'Yati' (an ascetic).
Mookerjee was born on July 6, 1901 in Calcutta.. His father was Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee, a well
respected advocate in Bengal, who became the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta,
Mookerjee graduated in English securing first position in first class in 1921 and also did MA in 1923
and BL in 1924. He became a fellow of the Senate in 1923. He left for England in 1926 to study in Lincoln’s
Inn and became a barrister in 1927. At the age of 32, he became the youngest Vice-Chancellor of the
University of Calcutta (1934), and held the office till 1938.
He was elected as member of the Legislative Council of Bengal, as a Indian National Congress
candidate representing Calcutta University but resigned next year when Congress decided to boycott
the legislature. Subsequently, he contested the election as an independent candidate and got
elected. He was the Finance minister of Bengal Province during 1941-42.
He emerged as a spokesman for Nationalism and shortly joined Hindu Mahasabha and in 1944, he
became the President. Mookerjee was not anti-Muslim, but a Hindu political leader who felt the need to
counteract the communalist and separatist Muslim League of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who were
demanding either exaggerated Muslim rights or a Muslim state of Pakistan.
Mookerjee adopted causes to unite Hindu voices, and protect Hindus against what he believed to
be the communal propaganda and the divisive agenda of the Muslim League. To Mookerjee, the Muslims
were a minority and thus could not in any reasonable system be given a status superior to the majority
Hindu masses. Mookerjee and his future followers would always cite inherent Hindu practices of
tolerance and communal respect as the reason for a healthy, prosperous and safe Muslim population in the
country in the first place.
He wanted the Hindu Mahasabha not to be restricted to Hindus alone or work as apolitical
body for the service of masses.
He was inducted into the Interim Central Government as a Minister for Industry and Supply.
But on issue of the 1949 Delhi Pact with Pakistani Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan, Mookerjee
resigned from the Cabinet on April 6, 1950. Mookerjee was firmly against Nehru’s invitation to the
Pakistani PM, and their joint pact to establish minority commissions and guarantee minority rights in both
countries. He wanted to hold Pakistan directly responsible for the terrible influx of millions of Hindu
refugees from East Pakistan, who had left the state fearing religious suppression and violence aided by
Mookerjee considered Nehru’s actions as appeasement, and was hailed as a hero by the people of West Bengal.
With support from Guruji, Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar, Sarsanghachalak of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak
Sangh, Mookerjee founded the Bharatiya Jana Sangh (IndianPeople’s Union) on October 21, 1951
at Delhi and became its first President.
The party criticized favoritism to India’s Muslims by the Nehru administration. The BJS also favored a uniform civil code for both Hindus and Muslims, want to ban cow slaughter and end the special
status of Muslim-majority Jammu and Kashmir. The BJS founded the Hindutva agenda which became the
wider political expression of India’s nationalism. In the 1952 general elections to the Parliament of India,
Mookerjee and the BJS won 3 seats. Mookerjee went to visit Kashmir in 1953, and went on
hunger strike to protest the law prohibiting Indian citizens from settling in a state in their own country and the need to carry ID cards, and was arrested on 11th May while crossing border. Although the ID card rule was
revoked owing to his efforts, he died as detenu on June 23, 1953 under mysterious circumstances.
His death in custody raised wide suspicion across the country and demands for independent enquiry,
including earnest requests from his mother, Jogmaya Devi to the then Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal
Nehru. Unfortunately no enquiry commission was set up and his death remains a mystery.
Source: Article in Kamal Sandesh, BJP Magazine, June 16-30, 2013
The film starts with the statement some freedom fighters' information is not adequately provided in the official history and others have to make efforts to give them the right place in history of India. This film is one such effort say the producer and director.
The First Half of The Fourteenth Century in South India
During the first decade of the century, the Yadava kingdom of Devagiri was the first to experience a Muslim invasion (Alauddin Khilji and Malik Kafur). During the second decade, it became the turn of the kingdoms of the Kakatiyas (of Warrangal), the Hoyasalas (of Dwarasamudra) and the Pandyas (of Madura) for similar experience. By about the middle of the third decade, even Malbar became a province of the Delhi Empire and Muslim rule was established at Madura.
Atrocities were committed by the Muslim rulers and their agents and the country began to groan under alien rule and the people were restive. An organised attempt of the Hindu princes and their peoples popular as the 'Liberation movement' set at liberty Deccan and South India from Muslim rule and a chain of new Hindu kingdoms rose on the ruins of the earlier ones, e.g. the Reddis, the Velamas, and the Rayas by the middle of the third and the fourth decades of the century with the definite object of restoration of Hindu Dharma and protection of Hindu religion.
Vijayanagar Empire was established by Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya under the guidance of Vidyaranya Swami.
With the blessings and guidance of Sri Vidyaranya Swamy, the Jagadguru of the Sri Sarada Peetham, Sringeri, on Saturday, 4th May 1336 (corresponding to S.S. 1258, Dhatri, Vaisakha, Su, 7, Pusya, Hari), Vira Harihara, at Hampi, celebrated his coronation as the king of his just founded kingdom.
( Source: http://www.vijayanagaracoins.com/htm/history.htm)
Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya - What is Their Background
This dynasty hails from the Circars and later settled down in Rayalasima. For, the Gozalavidu
record (Nellore District) dated A.D. 1314 mentions Bukkaraya Odeya as the ruler of the locality and his servant Idumakanti Gangi Reddi. This area was under the Kakatiyas at the time.
Kannada sources tell -us that Harihara and Bukka, sons of Sangamaraya, were treasurers in the
service of Prataparudra (of Warangal), and when the Kakatiya kingdom fell a prey to the Muslims in A.D. 1323, the brothers escaped to Kampili and took service there; when it succumbed in A.D. 1327, they were taken prisoners to Delhi and were converted to Islam. Anegondi (Hosadurg) became the seat of a Muslim garrison (A, D. 1327) to hold the country
Earani and Nuniz say that the brothers were connected with the royal family of Waranga!, contracted marriage alliances with the Rayas of Kampili; and so they were chosen by Muhammad to restore
peace in the areas where the people had risen in revolt against Malik Muhammad, the Muslim governor. Harihara and Bukka restored order by following a policy of conciliation, to a certain extent. Gooty and its
vicinity came under them. But their Muslim faith set people against them, and they met Vidyaranya, became Hindus, and set up the independent kingdom of Vijayanagar which thus became the heirloom of the kingdom of Kampili.
The young kingdom of Vijayanagar faced the attacks of Hoysala ruler of Mysore and Madurai Sultan. The Sultan of Madurai defeated the Hoysala ruler and killed him. The dissolution of Hoysala kingdom gave scope to Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya to expand their kingdom and by 1346, the whole Hoysala kingdom became part of Vijayanagar kingdom. That brought Madurai sultans and Vijayanagar kingdom into direct conflict. The fights between the two lasted four decades and finally in 1377, the Madurai Sultanate was wiped out.
Bukka Raya also fought with Bahmani sultan. He captured fortress at Mudgal. But in the subsequent fight Bukka Raya had to relinquish the control of Mudgal. Harihara Raya II occupied Belgaum and Goa from the Bahmani territory.
The Reign of Krishna Deva Raya (A.D. 1509 to 1530)
Krishna Deva Raya called Krishna Deva Rayalu in Telugu is the greatest king in Vijayanagar Empire.
Almost all of Southern India was under Krishna Deva Raya's sway, and several quasi-independent chiefs were his vassals who included the chief of Seringapatam, and those of Bankapur, Garsopa, Calicut, Bhatkal, and Barkur.
Even now, in Andhra Pradesh, India, the court scenes of poetry reading in Krishna Deva Raya's court are performed under a programme called Bhuvana Vijayam.
In a dispute that arose over the succession to the Pandya throne, one claimant appealed for help to emperor Ala-ud-din of Delhi, whose general, Malik Kafur was attacking various kingdoms in South India. In 1310. Malik Kafur marched into Madurai.
Malik Kafur returned to Delhi following after the event. The Pandyas protested the invasion, which continued for a few years in spasmodic fashion. The weakness of the Pandya regime caused the neighboring Chera ruler to invade and defeat the Pandya ruler, and he crowned himself in 1313.
But muslim rule was soon re-established at Madurai, ruling Madurai, Trichinopoly and even South Arcot. Madurai was annexed to the empire of Delhi during the reign of Sultan Ghiyathuddin Tughluq by about 1323 A.D. For the next 48 years, Madurai was under muslim rule, first as a feudatory of the Delhi Sultanate and later under independent sultans. In 1333, during the rule of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, Ala ud din Ahasan Shah declared independence from the Delhi sultanate and ruled the area until he was killed by one of his officers in 1339. Alaud din Udauji Shah (AD 1339-1340) took power in 1339, but soon met with the same fate. Qutb ud din Firoz (AD 1340) took over in 1340 and was killed in about forty days. Giyaz uddin Muhammad Damghan (AD 1340-1344) ascended the throne in 1340 and later married a daughter of Ahasan Shah. Ibn Batuta visited Madurai during his reign and he testifies to his atrocious behaviour. He was defeated initially by the Hoysala Veera Ballala, but he later captured and killed Ballala. He died in 1344. Nazir ud din Mahmud Damghan (AD 1344-1356), Adl Shah (AD 1356-1359), Faqr ud din Mubarak (AD 1359-1368) and Ala ud din Sikandar (AD 1368-1377) followed him in succession.
Kampana Udaiyar, a Vijayanagar prince and an agent of Bukka Raya who also served as a General in the Vijayanagar army, marched into Madurai in 1372. He expelled the Muslim sultan, Sikandar out of Madurai. Sikandar was totally defeated in 1377. The region became part of the Vijayanagara Empire. The conquest of the Madurai Sultanate was complete in 1378, when Harihara Raya declared himself as the "Emperor of the South".
After the defeat of Marathas in 1818, British administration could not absorb Ramoshis, who were entrusted with night patrolling and policing by Maratha governments.
From 1825 onwards, Ramoshis rose in revolt against British under the leadership of Umaji Naik. He issued an anti-British Manifesto.
The content of the manifesto issued by Umaji Naik
All people including kings-nobles should execute every English European they come across.
All those participating in such executions will be duly rewarded with lands and cash prizes after the new rule is established.
Those who have lost their ancestral rights or properties should come forward to help. All residents of Bharat should unitedly organise a revolution leading to anarchy in the country.
He was caught by British on 10 December 1830. It has been said that his sister was responsible for his capture. He was invited for an holy occasion to the house and British arrested him as per plan. He was executed by the British on 3 February 1832. He was on the very early revolutionaries against the British.