Friday, November 1, 2013

2 November - Day in History of India and Importance



Birthday  Arun Shourie  - Newspaper Editor and Minister, GOI


1774
Robert Clive committed suicide.

1967
National Service Scheme announced for students.

1976
Lok Sabha passed 42nd amendment bill. India is a secular socialist republic.



Birthdays

1877 - Aga Khan III
1897 - Sohrab Modi

1941 - Arun Shourie
1960 - Anu Malik
1965 - Shahrukh Khan
1981 - Esha Deol

http://www.indianage.com/1102.html

1 November - Day in History of India and Importance



Garwal Rifles Day
Andhra Pradesh Formation Day
Haryana Formation Day
Karnataka Formation Day
Kerala Formation Day
Madhya Pradesh Formation Day
Punjab Formation Day
Rajastan Formation Day
Tamil Nadu Formation Day


1858
India came directly under the adminstration of Queen of Britain. East India Company was displaced.

1913
Ghadar paper first issue printed from USA. It was a paper of Indian Revolutionaries. Edited by Lala Hardayal.

1937
Kerala University Established


1950
Fist Indigenous steam engine from Chittaranjan Locomotives railed out.


1956
States Reorganization on linguistic basis
Madhya Pradesh
Punjab
Gujarat
Maharashtra
Karntaka

1966
Haryana state created from Punjab

1961
Test flight of first AVRO assembled by IAF
http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/IAF/History/1960s/Kapil-Avro.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawker_Siddeley_HS_748


http://www.indianage.com/1101.html

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=DbnFSqKSVb0C  Page 289 to 292  Various days in India Monthwise

Thursday, September 5, 2013

5 September - Day in History of India and Importance



Teacher's Day

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Birthday of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

About Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
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1698
Two rival East India companies one granted right by King and the other by Parliament united and become United East India Company. In their competition they bribed voters and members to advance their interest during 1700 elections.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=_poBAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

2012 - The World Bank named Kaushik Basu as its Chief Economist.


http://www.indianage.com/0905.html


Friday, August 16, 2013

Mewar Kings and Kingdom - History - Bibliography



Maharana Raj Singh and His Times
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=tEycu_8H5qkC
Shah Jahan sent a large force against Chittor

Battle of Saraighat - 1671 - Defeat of Mughal Army by Ahoms (Assamese)

 The Mughal Emperor Auranjeb deputed the powerful Rajput king Raja Ram Singha as the Commander-in-Chief of the Mughal army to attack Ahoms.

The  king Chakradwaj Singha ordered the deployment of Assamese forces on both the banks of the Brahmaputra  The Barphukan was aware that the Mughals would definitely try to invade the country on the north bank of the Brahmaputra as they could move faster on the land routes of the north bank. The south bank of the Brahmaputra was relatively safer as the enemy needed to cross the mighty river Brahmaputra to attack the Assamese forces on the south bank. Moreover, the Assamese naval force was fairly strong and the border posts were strategically important.Hence he fortified the border posts.

Lachit Barphukan camped in Itakhuli. He had a very strong personality.  None could look straight at his face. After detailing his soldiers, he came and held discussion with the commanders.

However, the debacle of the Assamese forces at Alaboi in which ten thousand soldiers were killed by the Mughal army disheartened King Chakradwaj Singha. In fact, Lachit was not interested to fight the Mughal army on the north bank. On the insistence of the king, he had sent his soldiers to fight the land battle at Allaboi near Agiathuri resulting in a catastrophe.

After the death of king Chakradwaj, his cousin Udayaditya ascended the throne. He was in favour of a negotiated settlement and there were diplomatic missions between the Barphukan and Raja Ram Singha.  But the conditions given by Ram Singha that Guwahati be returned to the Mughal was totally unacceptable and so Lachit Barphukan procrastinated. On the other hand, the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb was furious that Raja Ram Singha was not being able to wrest away Guwahati and the lower Assam from the Ahom king. He ordered Ram Singha to fight the Assamese.

Raja Ram Singha was now determined to fight the Assamese. So he sent Munnawar Khan, his nephew Rabat Khan, Lasid Khan, two Firingis (foreigners) on war boats. They fired their guns and shot their arrows from their boats to launch an attack on the Assamese. The Assamese fleet retreated to Amrajurighat.

It was, therefore, thought by the Mughal Commanders that the landing of their men and horses would be easy at that open shore for an attack on Guwahati. But, in the meantime, high sand banks had been built by the Assamese all along it from the foot of the Kamakhya Hill to that of Sukreswar. When the Mughal fleet reached the Juria Hill, the Assamese army retreated to Asvakranta. This compelled their land forces also to retreat in order to avert an encircling movement by the enemy. . Even with high temperature, Lachit Barphukan remained alert and was informed every few minutes about the advance of the enemy up the river. There was such a concentration of the Ahom navy at Guwahati that it was possible to walk over the bridge of war-boats alone from one bank of the Brahmaputra to the other. The Mughals pressed forward to the open shore of Andharubali and the Assamese fell back to the Bar-Sila after an action which did not succeed in stemming the enemy’s progress. It seemed as if there was a break-down in the command, though there was not any inherent lack of energy and strength of the Ahom navy, which had regained its supremacy under Chakradhvaj Singha.

Some of the Assamese boatmen wanted to retreat to Kajali and Samdhara. The commander at Aswaklanta, a Hazarika of the Miri Sandiqui family, asked the Barphukan to come to his rescue. Lachit Barphukan sent the following reply:-“Tell your men, I am going to die on this spot and I will never think of abandoning my charge. I have a piece of land on the top of the Chila hill which will provide sufficient accommodation for my dead body. If I survive I shall go after all the people who have left their places.” A commander named Nara Hazarika rushed from Sindurighopa, and knelt down before the retreating soldiers shouting, “My countrymen, do please flee if you want to pour poison on this platter of gold!” The Barphukan immediately placed 2,000 men at the disposal of Nara Hazarika.

The Buragohain was at Lathia. Hatibarua Deka loaded all the belongings of the Buragohain on the boats without his knowledge. Even the belongings of the Barphukan were also loaded without his knowledge into the boats which reached Latasil. The Barphukan who was very ill was watching this scene from his sick bed at his archery store .When he heard that the Mughals had reached Juria, he asked the attendants to take him out so that he could see how far the Mughals had arrived. He was taken out to the gate yard of his residence by four Bhuyans.

The Barphukan wanted to go to confront the Mughals but the astrologer Achyutananda Doloi said, “The time is not the auspicious for it”. The Barphukan said, “Doloi, I shall now severe your head before the Heavenly King does it!” The Doloi said, “You may do so.” The Barphukan remained at his gate house taking information about the naval battle. He said, “The Mughals have crossed Amrajuri; Doloi, the Heavenly King will not spare you nor me. You have paved the way for your annihilation, brought about my disgrace and destroyed my livelihood!” After a few seconds, the astrologer announced, “Now is the most appropriate time to catch the enemy!”

The Barphukan immediately came down the steps of the gate house, supported by Nodai of Kharangi and boarded his boat. Seeing the retreating of the Ahom soldiers, the oarsmen wanted to go upstream leaving the scene of contest. The Barphukan exclaimed, “How dare you row the boats upstream? The  King has given me the command of the people of the place here. Should I go back to my wife and family without fighting the enemy? How dare these serfs of boatmen venture to row up the boats without my permission?” So saying he hit four oarsmen with the blunt edge of his sword and threw them into the water. He beat up his body guards and threw them into the river. He, however, allowed them to come when their comrades entreated him for mercy.

The effect was electrifying. Words spread that the Barphukan   was killing those who were retreating without fighting the enemy and throwing them into the river. The Barphukan said loudly, “Let the Mughals capture me alive and let my people go home in peace!” His fleet of seven boats with mounted guns sped towards the enemies. This gallant and extra-ordinary act of the Ahom General at once restored the morale of his army and the navy  and immediately the shore batteries of the Ahoms and the archers, on the north and south banks went into action with terrific volleys and their naval forces fell upon the Mughal fleet and threw it into confusion. A big battle ensued in the area of Saraighat and both the sides called up their strength. The Sharing Phukan, the Neog Kataki and many Hazarikas proceeded from Rangmahal and joined their army in this violent contest. The Mughal Commandant Sharip Khan and two other Amirs commanding the navy fell downs dead. Innumerable Mughal soldiers were killed and many of their boats with men, horses and war materials were sunk. The survivors made quick retreat in their boats. A large amount of booty came into the possession of the Ahoms. There was no other fighting after this naval fight. That was the historic battle of Saraighat fought in the middle of March, 1671, which became the Waterloo for the mighty Mughals in the east.

The Assamese people regained their lost glory. The victory of the Assamese people in the battle of Saraighat was a landmark in the history of Assam and we are proud of this great achievement of Veer Lachit.


http://www.publicationsdivision.nic.in/Eng-Pub/Au-Wise/EB34.HTM

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Saraighat

Defeat of Rohilla Khan (Ruhullah Khan) by Chhatrasal - 1673



The Mughal authority was set at naught and chaos and confusion reigned supreme in the territories around Dhamoni due to the raids by Chhatrasal. Khaliq, the Faujdar of Dhamoni sent urgent messengers to the Emperor. The Emperor sent Ruhullah Khan (23rd March, 1673) to take charge of Dhamoni with express orders to suppress Chhatrasal and his brothers. The chiefs of various neighbouring states including Datia, Orchha, Chanderi etc. were ordered to render every assistance to the new Faujdar against Chhatrasal.

Ruhullah Khan advanced with a large army towards Garhakota(28 miles east of Sagar) to attack  Chhatrasal. The battle which began in the afternoon continued till night. The Bundelas  repelled the Mughal forces inflicting heavy losses and Ruhullah Khan was forced to beat a retreat.

The news of the  failure of the Mughal expedition reached the Emperor. He  fined Ruhullah Khan and ordered him to suppress the Bundelas with the help of a contingent of Turks that was sent. Ruhullah Khan again advanced with a strong army and encountered the Bundelas at Basia(10 miles west of Sagar). In the engagement that followed the Bundelas made a dash upon the Mughal artillery. At that time gunpowder was being distributed among the gunners, which was set alight by the Bundelas and the resulting explosions created panic in the Mughal army. Taking advantage, the Bundelas swooped upon the enemy forces and routed them completely.


http://bundelkhand.tripod.com/states/allchhatrasal.htm

Wednesday, August 14, 2013

Battle of Kayadara (Gujarat), 1178 - Defeat of Muhammed Ghori

 In 1178 Muhammed Ghori, marched towards Gujarat capital of Anhilwara (modern Patan).

Gujarat was ruled by the young Indian ruler Bhimdev Solanki II (ruled 1178–1241). The army was commanded by his mother Naikidevi.  Muhammad's army had suffered greatly during the march across the desert, and Naikidevi inflicted a major defeat on him at the village of Kayadara (near to Mount Abu, about forty miles to the north-east of Anhilwara).  The invading army suffered heavy casualties during the battle, and also in the retreat back across the desert to Multan.

An army led by Qutb al-din Aibak,  Ghori's deputy  invaded again  in c.1195–97.  Bhimdev defeated Aibak again and adorned himself as "Abhinav Siddharaj". 

Sunday, August 11, 2013

Battle of Rajasthan - 738 AD - Defeat of Arabs



The Battle of Rajasthan is a battle (or series of battles) where the Gurjar Hindu alliance defeated the Arab invaders in 738 CE  The final battle took place somewhere on the borders of modern Sindh-Rajasthan. Following their defeat the remnants of the Arab army fled to the other bank of the River Indus.The main Indian kings who contributed to the victory over the Arabs were the north Indian Gurjar Emperor Nagabhata I of the Pratihara Dynasty and the south Indian Gurjar Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty in the 8th century.



The most powerful kingdoms of North India in the 8th century were the Gurjara Pratihara dynasty and the Pala dynasty.
 In the early 8th Century the Kingdom of Sindh under Brahmin King Dahir of the Rai dynasty was convulsed by internal strife——taking advantage of the conditions the Arabs assaulted it and  occupied it under Muhammad ibn Qasim, the nephew of Al-Hajjaj (governor of Iraq and Khurasan). Qasim and his successors attempted to expand from Sindh into Punjab and other regions but were badly defeated by Lalitaditya of Kashmir and Yasovarman of Kannauj.


Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri, the successor of Muhammad ibn Qasim, in Sindh led a large army into the region in early 730 CE. Dividing this force into two he plundered several cities in southern Rajasthan, western Malwa, and Gujarat. The southern army moving south into Gujarat was defeated at Navsari by Avanijanashraya Pulakesi who was sent by the South Indian Gurjar Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya Empire. The army that went east, reached Avanti whose ruler Gurjara Pratihara Nagabhata I utterly defeated the invaders and they fled to save their life.

The Battle of Rajasthan

Gauging at the seriousness of the situation as well as the power of the arab forces, pratihara king, Nagabhata made pact with Jaysimha Varman of the Rashtrakuta Empire. Jaysimha in turn sent his son Avanijanashraya Pulakesi to support Nagabhata. The two Dynasties of India supplemented the already fighting Hindu Gurjar Mewar Kingdom, under Bappa Rawal, at the border of Rajasthan.

The battle was fought between 5,000-6,000 Gurjar Infantry and cavalry facing more than 30,000 Arabs. The Gurjar fought bravely and managed to kill the Arab leader Emir Junaid during the war. This enhanced the morale of the Gurjar hindu forces while the Arabs disorganized and demoralized due to their leaders death retreated and were frequently attacked by local forces until they reached the indus river taking great casualties.


Junayd's successor Tamim ibn Zaid al-Utbi organized a fresh campaigns against Rajasthan but failed to hold any territories there. He would be further pushed across River Indus by the combined forces of the King of Kannauj, Nagabhata thus limiting the Arabs to the territory of Sindh across River Indus.
 The Arabs crossed over to the other side of the River Indus, abandoning all their lands to the victorious Indian kings. The local chieftains took advantage of these conditions to re-establish their independence. Subsequently the Arabs constructed the city of Mansurah on the other side of the wide and deep Indus, which was safe from attack. This became their new capital in Sindh.

Rana Hamir - Recapture of Chittor - 1326



Chittor was besieged in 1303 AD by the army of Alauddin Khilji, sultan of Delhi, who is said to have coveted Padmini, Rani of Chittor, a legendary beauty of her day. The famous Jauhar followed, wherein Rani Padmini, led the ladies of the fort into death by self-immolation.  The next morning, the menfolk of Chittor rode out to face certain death on the field of honour.
After Chittor was lost, an extremely distant kinsman of Rawal Ratan Singh (Rana of Mewar), by name 'Laksha' or Lakshman Singh, proclaimed himself Rana-in-exile. Laksha was descended in direct patrilineage from Bappa Rawal (founder of Mewar Dynasty), and hence belonged to the Gehlot clan. But he was an eighth cousin twice removed of Rawal Ratan Singh. Laksha hailed from the village of Sisoda near the town of Nathdwara. Laksha was the father of nine sons, of whom the eldest was Ari.   Hammir was the only child of Ari.


Both Laksha and Ari died in various skirmishes when Hammir was yet an infant; resultantly, Hammir grew up under the tutelage of his uncle Ajay, the second son of Laksha.

The Khiljis had assigned their newly conquered territories to the administration of Maldeo, ruler of the nearby state of Jalore, who had allied with them during the recent war. In a bid to reconcile and co-opt the natives of the land to his rule, Maldeo arranged for the marriage of his widowed daughter Songari with Hammir.  Rana Hammir Singh re-established the state of Mewar in 1326 by engineering a coup d'état against his father-in-law. The dynasty thus founded by Hammir, who was descended in direct patrilineage from Bappa Rawal, came to be known as Sisodia after Sisoda, the mountain village whence Hammir hailed.

http://www.jatland.com/home/Mewar

Bappa Rawal - Founder of Mewar Dynasty - Warrior Who Defeated Arabs - 713-780 AD



Bappa Rawal (AD. 713-810), was the founder of the Mewar Dynasty (r. 734-753).


Bappa Rawal was one of the most powerful and famous rulers of the Mewar Dynasty. He is  a surviving member of the Guhilot clan. But he established the Mewar Dynasty, naming it for the kingdom he had just taken. He went on to become a celebrated hero on battlefields near and far.  It is said that Bappa was blessed by Harit Rishi, a sage of the Mewar region, with kingship.

Bappa Rawal is said to have spent his childhood near a place called Nagda.

Bappa Rawal played an important role in the Battle of Rajasthan, a series of wars fought in the 8th century AD between the regional rulers of North-Western India and the Arabs of Sindh, in which the regional Indian rulers inflicted a resounding defeat on the invading Arabs.

In the 8th century Arab Muslims started attacking India within a few decades of the birth of Islam, which was basically an extension of invasion of Persia. In order to ward off Muslim invasions across the western and northern borders of Rajputana, Bappa united the smaller states of Ajmer and Jaisalmer to stop the attacks. Bappa Rawal fought and defeated the Arabs in the country and turned the tide for a while. Bin Qasim was able to defeat Dahir in Sindh but was stopped by Bappa Rawal.

Bappa defeated and pursued Bin Qasim through Saurashtra and back to the western banks of the Sindhu (i.e. current day Baluchistan). He then marched on to Ghazni and defeated the local ruler Salim and after nominating a representative returned to Chittor. Subsequently, Bappa Rawal and his armies invaded various kingdoms including Kandahar, Khorasan, Turan, Ispahan, Iran and made them vassals of his kingdom. Thus he not only defended India's frontiers but for a brief period was able to expand them.


Bappa Rawal was also known to be a just ruler. After having ruled his kingdom for almost 20 years he abdicated the throne in favour of his son, he became a devout Siva 'upasak' (worshipper of Shiva) and became a 'Yati' (an ascetic).


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bappa_Rawal

http://www.ensyklopedia.com/2012/07/24/bappa-rawal-founder-of-mewar-dynasty-winner-of-battle-of-rajasthan-713-ad-753-ad/

Bappa Rawal's Childhood
http://www.bheel.8k.com/custom.html

Bappa Rawal Story Book
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=AualbeLdXj8C

First Battle of Rajastan - Arab lost badly
http://www.defence.pk/forums/military-history-strategy/230353-first-battle-rajasthan-where-arab-lost-indians.html

11 August - Day in History of India and Importance




1908 -Khudiram Bose was hanged
http://www.gatewayforindia.com/history/british_history3.htm

1961 - The Former Portuguese Territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli were Merged to Create the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli

2012 - Mohammed Hamid Ansari was sworn in as 14th Vice President of India

2016
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Birthdays


1951 Sunil Shetty - Hindi Film Actor


http://www.indianage.com/0811.html

Advance Study in the History of Modern India (Volume-2: 1803-1920)
G. S. Chhabra
Lotus Press, 01-Jan-2005 - India - 680 pages
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=OzZzFm4pLWQC

Military History of India - Bibliography



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_India


Battle of Rajasthan 738 AD - Defeat of Arabs
http://thehistoryindia.blogspot.in/2013/08/battle-of-rajasthan-738-ad-defeat-of.html

Military History of British India, 1607-1947
H.S. Bhatia
Deep and Deep Publications, 1977 - India - 270 pages
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=Lrjr7P2HMfkC

The military history of the duke of Wellington in India (Google eBook)
Wm. H. Allen, 1852 - India - 123 pages
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=PFUBAAAAQAAJ


First Maratha-East India Company War
http://thehistoryindia.blogspot.in/2012/12/first-maratha-east-india-company-war.html

Maharana Pratap - Video Serial on Sony TV - Episodes 1 to 10




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Tuesday, August 6, 2013

6 August - Day in History of India and Importance




1987 - India's first scientifically documented test tube baby was born. Name Indira Harsha

2016

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Birthdays


Avinash Dixit - Economist
G.S. Dhillon
Kotha Raghu Ramiah MP - Andhra Pradesh


http://www.indianage.com/0806.html

Saturday, August 3, 2013

Ramkishun - M.P.



DOB: August 3, 1956

Ramkishun  is a member of the 15th Lok Sabha of India. He represents the Chandauli constituency of Uttar Pradesh and is a member of the Samajwadi Party (SP) political party.

Ramkishun has a bachelor of arts and bachelor of education degree. He is the co-author of "Corporate Strategic Management" and "Economics and Societal Development".

Thursday, August 1, 2013

1 August - Day in History of India and Importance



1920 -Death of Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Gandhi launched non-violent non-cooperation movement.

2000 - Lok Sabha adopted Uttar Pradesh State Reorganization bill creating Uttranchal State (27th State)

2016

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Birthdays

1882 Purushottam Das Tandon
1899 Kamala Nehru, Wife of Jawaharlal Nehru
1932 Meena Kumari

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http://www.indianage.com/0801.html

Wednesday, July 31, 2013

31 July - Day in History of India and Importance



1658 - Auranjeb became emperor

1959 - IIT at Guindy, Madras (Presently Chennai) inaugurated.

1991
July 1991 - Month of India's Economic Reforms
India's Economic Reforms (1991 - 2016) Review and Plan for 2016-2041 - $20 Trillion GDP

2016

Petrol, Diesel became cheaper
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Birthdays

Sonu Nigam


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Tuesday, July 30, 2013

30 July - Day in History of India and Importance



1957 - Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India was founded

1987 - Rajiv Gandhi escaped an attack on him at Colombo

1991
July 1991 - Month of India's Economic Reforms
India's Economic Reforms (1991 - 2016) Review and Plan for 2016-2041 - $20 Trillion GDP

2016
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Birthdays

Mandakini   - Film Heroine - Ram Teri Ganga Maili
Sonu Sood - Hindi Film Actor - negative roles


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Monday, July 29, 2013

29 July - Day in History of India and Importance




1991
July 1991 - Month of India's Economic Reforms
India's Economic Reforms (1991 - 2016) Review and Plan for 2016-2041 - $20 Trillion GDP


2010
Sachin Tendulakar scored 51st century against Sri Lanka in Colombo


2016

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Birthdays

JRD Tata,
1959 Sanjuy Dutt,
1959 Anup Jalota


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Friday, July 26, 2013

26 July - Day in History of India and Importance

Kargil Victory Day

July 1991 - Month of India's Economic Reforms
India's Economic Reforms (1991 - 2016) Review and Plan for 2016-2041 - $20 Trillion GDP

26 July 1999 - Kargil Victory Day






2016

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Tuesday, July 23, 2013

Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee

Mookerjee was born on July 6, 1901 in Calcutta.. His father was Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee, a well
respected advocate in Bengal, who became the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta,

Mookerjee  graduated in English securing first position in first class in 1921 and also did MA in 1923
and BL in 1924. He became a fellow of the Senate in 1923. He left for England in 1926 to study in Lincoln’s
Inn and became a barrister in 1927. At the age of 32, he became the youngest Vice-Chancellor of the
University of Calcutta (1934), and held the office till 1938.

Political career

He was elected as member of the Legislative Council of Bengal, as a Indian National Congress
candidate representing Calcutta University but resigned next year when Congress decided to boycott
the legislature. Subsequently, he contested the election as an independent candidate and got
elected. He was the Finance minister of Bengal Province during 1941-42.

He emerged as a spokesman for Nationalism and shortly joined Hindu Mahasabha and in 1944, he
became the President. Mookerjee was not anti-Muslim, but a Hindu political leader who felt the need to
counteract the communalist and separatist Muslim League of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who were
demanding either exaggerated Muslim rights or a Muslim state of Pakistan.

Mookerjee adopted causes to unite Hindu voices, and protect Hindus against what he believed to
be the communal propaganda and the divisive agenda of the Muslim League. To Mookerjee, the Muslims
were a minority and thus could not in any reasonable system be given a status superior to the majority
Hindu masses. Mookerjee and his future followers would always cite inherent Hindu practices of
tolerance and communal respect as the reason for a healthy, prosperous and safe Muslim population in the
country in the first place.

He wanted the Hindu Mahasabha not to be restricted to Hindus alone or work as apolitical
body for the service of masses.

Post-Independence

He was inducted into the  Interim Central Government as a Minister for Industry and Supply.
But on issue of the 1949 Delhi Pact with Pakistani Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan, Mookerjee
resigned from the Cabinet on April 6, 1950. Mookerjee was firmly against Nehru’s invitation to the
Pakistani PM, and their joint pact to establish minority commissions and guarantee minority rights in both
countries. He wanted to hold Pakistan directly responsible for the terrible influx of millions of Hindu
refugees from East Pakistan, who had left the state fearing religious suppression and violence aided by
the state.

Mookerjee considered Nehru’s actions as appeasement, and was hailed as a hero by the people of West Bengal.

With support from Guruji, Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar, Sarsanghachalak of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak
Sangh, Mookerjee founded the Bharatiya Jana Sangh (IndianPeople’s Union) on October 21, 1951
at Delhi and became its first President.

The party criticized favoritism to India’s Muslims by the Nehru administration.  The BJS also favored a uniform civil code for both Hindus and Muslims, want to ban cow slaughter and end the special
status of Muslim-majority Jammu and Kashmir. The BJS founded the Hindutva agenda which became the
wider political expression of India’s nationalism. In the 1952 general elections to the Parliament of India,
Mookerjee and the BJS won 3 seats. Mookerjee went to visit Kashmir in 1953, and went on
hunger strike to protest the law prohibiting Indian citizens from settling in a state in their own country and the need to carry ID cards, and was arrested on 11th May while crossing border. Although the ID card rule was
revoked owing to his efforts, he died as detenu on June 23, 1953 under mysterious circumstances.
His death in custody raised wide suspicion across the country and demands for independent enquiry,
including earnest requests from his mother, Jogmaya Devi to the then Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal
Nehru. Unfortunately no enquiry commission was set up and his death remains a mystery.


Source: Article in Kamal Sandesh, BJP Magazine, June 16-30, 2013

Saturday, June 1, 2013

6 June - Day in History of India and Importance



1674
Chatrapathi Shivaji ,Founder of Hindu rule in region around Pune,  was crowned in Raigarh fort with the tittle 'Chatrapathi'.


Birthdays

1964 - Porika Balaram Naik -  2009 Lok Sabha Member


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7 June - Day in History of India and Importance


1979
India launched its second satellite 'Bhaskar' into space.

Birthdays
1943 Rayapati Sambasiva Rao -  2009 Lok Sabha Member


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8 June - Day in History of India and Importance


1936
India's Civil Radio Network was renamed "All India Radio'.

1981
Prakash Padukone won International Badminton Tournament.

2012
First food bank opened in Delhi under India Food Banking Network


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http://www.indianage.com/0608.html

10 June - Day in History of India and Importance



Birthdays

1947 - A. Ganesha Murthy - 2009 Lok Sabha Member

1955 - Prakash Padukone - Badminton player - All England Badminton Champion


OMG! Yeh Mera India
History TV 18
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Friday, May 31, 2013

Veer Savarkar



There is a film on Veer Savarkar. It was uploaded on YouTube in 19 parts. The first part is
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fOsSrDnX-Us

The film starts with the statement some freedom fighters' information is not adequately provided in the official history and others have to make efforts to give them the right place in history of India. This film is one such effort say the producer and director.

Wednesday, May 8, 2013

Vijayanagar Empire - Foundation and Expansion


The First Half of The Fourteenth Century in South India

During the first decade of the century, the Yadava kingdom of Devagiri was the first to experience a Muslim invasion (Alauddin Khilji and Malik Kafur). During the second decade, it became the turn of the kingdoms of the Kakatiyas (of Warrangal), the Hoyasalas (of Dwarasamudra) and the Pandyas (of Madura) for similar experience. By about the middle of the third decade, even Malbar became a province of the Delhi Empire and Muslim rule was established at Madura.

Atrocities were committed by the Muslim rulers and their agents and the country began to groan under alien rule and the people were restive. An organised attempt of the Hindu princes and their peoples popular as the 'Liberation movement' set at liberty Deccan and South India from Muslim rule and a chain of new Hindu kingdoms rose on the ruins of the earlier ones, e.g. the Reddis, the Velamas, and the Rayas by the middle of the third and the fourth decades of the century with the definite object of restoration of Hindu Dharma and protection of Hindu religion.

Vijayanagar Empire was established by Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya under the guidance of Vidyaranya Swami.

With the blessings and guidance of Sri Vidyaranya Swamy, the Jagadguru of the Sri Sarada Peetham, Sringeri, on Saturday, 4th May 1336 (corresponding to S.S. 1258, Dhatri, Vaisakha, Su, 7, Pusya, Hari), Vira Harihara, at Hampi, celebrated his coronation as the king of his just founded kingdom.
( Source:  http://www.vijayanagaracoins.com/htm/history.htm)




Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya - What is Their Background

This dynasty hails from the Circars and later settled down in Rayalasima. For, the Gozalavidu
record (Nellore District) dated A.D. 1314 mentions Bukkaraya Odeya as the ruler of the locality and his servant Idumakanti Gangi Reddi. This area was under the Kakatiyas at the time.

Kannada sources tell -us that Harihara and Bukka, sons of Sangamaraya, were treasurers in the
service of Prataparudra (of Warangal), and when the Kakatiya kingdom fell a prey to the Muslims in A.D. 1323, the brothers escaped to Kampili and took service there; when it succumbed in A.D. 1327, they were taken  prisoners to Delhi and were converted to Islam. Anegondi (Hosadurg) became the seat of a Muslim garrison (A, D. 1327) to hold the country


Earani and Nuniz say that the brothers were connected with the royal family of Waranga!, contracted marriage alliances with the Rayas of Kampili; and so they were chosen by Muhammad to restore
peace in the areas where the people had risen in revolt against Malik Muhammad, the Muslim governor. Harihara and Bukka restored order by following a policy of conciliation, to a certain extent. Gooty and its
vicinity came under them. But their Muslim faith set people against them, and they met Vidyaranya, became Hindus, and set up the independent kingdom of Vijayanagar which thus became the heirloom of the kingdom of Kampili.

Kampila Raya was the earlier king of the area.

The Dynasty

Bukka Raya succeeded his brother Harihara Raya. Bukka Raya  was succeeded by Harihara Raya II. The full list of kings of the dynasty is available in http://www.vijayanagaracoins.com/htm/history.htm ) .

Challenges faced by Vijayanagar

The young kingdom of Vijayanagar faced the attacks of Hoysala ruler of Mysore and Madurai Sultan. The Sultan of Madurai defeated the Hoysala ruler and killed him. The dissolution of Hoysala kingdom gave scope to Harihara Raya and Bukka Raya to expand their kingdom and by 1346, the whole Hoysala kingdom became part of Vijayanagar kingdom. That brought Madurai sultans and Vijayanagar kingdom into direct conflict. The fights between the two lasted four decades and finally in 1377, the Madurai Sultanate was wiped out.

Bukka Raya also fought with Bahmani sultan. He captured fortress at Mudgal. But in the subsequent fight Bukka Raya had to relinquish the control of Mudgal.  Harihara Raya II occupied Belgaum and Goa from the Bahmani territory.

The Reign of Krishna Deva Raya (A.D. 1509 to 1530)

Krishna Deva Raya called Krishna Deva Rayalu in Telugu is the greatest king in Vijayanagar Empire.
Almost all  of Southern India was under Krishna Deva Raya's sway, and several quasi-independent chiefs were his vassals who included the chief of Seringapatam, and those of Bankapur, Garsopa, Calicut, Bhatkal, and Barkur.

Even now, in Andhra Pradesh, India,  the court scenes of poetry reading in Krishna Deva Raya's court are performed under a programme called Bhuvana Vijayam.



Bibliography

THE ROLE OF RAYALASIMA IN THE EMPIRE OF VIJAYANAGAR
http://www.archive.org/stream/svuorientaljourn015491mbp/svuorientaljourn015491mbp_djvu.txt


A FORGOTTEN EMPIRE: VIJAYANAGAR By Robert Swell
http://books.google.com/books?id=OZ0ZiSI7yFgC  Full view available

http://www.nalanda.nitc.ac.in/resources/english/etext-project/history/vijayanagar/book1.chapter4.html
http://www.nalanda.nitc.ac.in/resources/english/etext-project/history/vijayanagar/book1.chapter11.html

Indian History by Krishna Reddy, Chapter 12 (Good brief description of Vijayanagar empire)
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=CeEmpfmbxKEC



Madurai - Brief Muslim Rule - Hindu Rule Reestablished by Bukka Raya - 1310-1400


In a dispute that arose over the succession to the Pandya throne, one claimant appealed for help to emperor Ala-ud-din of Delhi, whose general, Malik Kafur was attacking various kingdoms in South India.  In 1310. Malik Kafur  marched into Madurai.

Malik Kafur returned to Delhi following after the event. The Pandyas protested the invasion, which continued for a few years in spasmodic fashion. The weakness of the Pandya regime caused the neighboring Chera ruler to invade and defeat the Pandya ruler, and he crowned himself in 1313.

But muslim rule was soon re-established at Madurai, ruling Madurai, Trichinopoly and even South Arcot. Madurai was annexed to the empire  of Delhi during the reign of Sultan Ghiyathuddin Tughluq by about 1323 A.D. For the next 48 years, Madurai was under muslim rule, first as a feudatory of the Delhi Sultanate and later under independent sultans.  In 1333, during the rule of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, Ala ud din Ahasan Shah declared independence from the Delhi sultanate and ruled the area until he was killed by one of his officers in 1339. Alaud din Udauji Shah (AD 1339-1340) took power in 1339, but soon met with the same fate. Qutb ud din Firoz (AD 1340) took over in 1340 and was killed in about forty days. Giyaz uddin Muhammad Damghan (AD 1340-1344) ascended the throne in 1340 and later married a daughter of Ahasan Shah. Ibn Batuta visited Madurai during his reign and he testifies to his atrocious behaviour. He was defeated initially by the Hoysala Veera Ballala, but he later captured and killed Ballala. He died in 1344. Nazir ud din Mahmud Damghan (AD 1344-1356), Adl Shah (AD 1356-1359), Faqr ud din Mubarak (AD 1359-1368) and Ala ud din Sikandar (AD 1368-1377) followed him in succession.

Kampana Udaiyar, a Vijayanagar prince and an agent of Bukka Raya who also served as a General in the Vijayanagar army, marched into Madurai in 1372. He expelled the Muslim sultan, Sikandar out of Madurai.  Sikandar was totally defeated in 1377. The region became part of the Vijayanagara Empire. The conquest of the Madurai Sultanate was complete in 1378, when Harihara Raya  declared himself as the "Emperor of the South".




http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/832/10/10_chapter%203.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madurai_Nayak_Dynasty

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

14 March - Day in History of India and Importance



1931
The first full length Indian talkie Alam Ara was released. Ardeshir Irani made the movie and Vithal and Zubeida played the lead roles.

2007
Nandigram violence

http://www.indianage.com/0314.html

Sunday, April 7, 2013

15 Lok Sabha Election



Election for 15 Lok Sabha was held during 16th April 2009 to 13 May 2009 in phases. Congress emerged as the single largest party and formed the government.

Sant Tukaram




Left for heavenly abode in 1652

Marathi film - Sant Tukaram (1965)
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As Tukaram's abhangs are in Marathi, watching the Marathi film is very good to listen to Tukaram's abhangs

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tukaram

Umaji Naik - An Early Freedom Fighter - 1979 - 1832




After the defeat of Marathas in 1818, British administration could not absorb Ramoshis, who were entrusted with night patrolling and policing by Maratha governments.

From 1825 onwards, Ramoshis rose in revolt against British under the leadership of Umaji Naik. He issued an anti-British Manifesto.

The content of the manifesto issued by Umaji Naik

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All people including kings-nobles should execute every English European they come across.

All those participating in such executions will be duly rewarded with lands and cash prizes after the new rule is established.

Those who have lost their ancestral rights or properties should come forward to help. All residents of Bharat should unitedly organise a revolution leading to anarchy in the country.

____________

He was caught by British on 10 December 1830.  It has been said that his sister was responsible for his capture. He was invited for an holy occasion to the house and British arrested him as per plan. He was executed by the British on 3 February 1832. He was on the very early revolutionaries against the British.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umaji_Naik_Khomane

http://www.financialexpress.com/old/ie/daily/19970607/15850363.html

http://mulniwasikhobragade.blogspot.in/2012/05/kartikarai-umaji-naik.html

Monday, March 18, 2013

Friday, March 15, 2013

15 March - Day in History of India and Importance



1959
Dalai Lama  came to India, seeking political asylum.

2012
Akhilesh Yadav (SP) became Chief Minister of UP.

http://www.indianage.com/0315.html

10 March - Day in History of India and Importance


The Raising Day of Central Industrial Security Force

www.cisf.gov.in
10 March 2013 44th Raising Day of CISF

Foundation Day of IIT Bombay

IIT Bombay was set up on 10 March 1958
Foundation stone of the campus was laid by the Prime Minister at that time,  Jawahar La Nehru on 10 March 1959.



Events

1922 Mahatma Gandhi arrested for the first time.
1997 Maharashtra Government renamed Osmanabad as Dharashiva
1999 Lok Sabha approved Patents Amendment Bill (1999).

Birthdays
1945 Birthday of Madhavrao Scindia - Cabinet Minister, Government of India
1956 Narahari Mahto  2009 Lok Sabha Member

Events

1922 Mahatma Gandhi arrested for the first time.
1997 Maharashtra Government renamed Osmanabad as Dharashiva
1999 Lok Sabha approved Patents Amendment Bill (1999).



http://www.indianage.com/0310.html

Wednesday, January 23, 2013

26 January - Day in History of India and Importance

Republic Day of India


1775 - death of Shuja-ud-daula, Nawab of Audh, on January 26, 1775

1930

Congress gave a call for Purna Swaraj on 31 December 1929.
26 January 1930 - Independence was observed all over the country.

2012

Republic Day Function
Chief Guest Thailand Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra
http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/63rd-republic-day-india-showcases-military-might-cultural-heritage/1/170621.html

IIM-Lucknow student held for murdering friend
http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/iim-student-held-for-murdering-his-friend/1/170614.html


2013
King of Bhutan will be chief guest for the Republic Day Parade

http://www.indianage.com/0126.html

This Day in India History - Index Page for the Year